Category Archives: news
Decrease in neurotransmitter GABA triggers stem cell production in the retina.
Researchers at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, have discovered that in zebrafish, decreased levels of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) cue the retina, the light-sensing tissue in the back of the eye, to produce stem cells. The finding sheds light on how the zebrafish regenerates its retina after injury and informs efforts to restore vision in people who are blind. The research was funded by the National Eye Institute (NEI) and appears online today in Stem Cell Reports. NEI is part of the National Institutes of Health.
“This work opens up new ideas for therapies for blinding diseases and has implications for the broader field of regenerative medicine,” said Tom Greenwell, Ph.D., NEI program officer for retinal neuroscience.
Encouraging results help set stage for larger studies.
New clinical trial results provide evidence that high-dose immunosuppressive therapy followed by transplantation of a person’s own blood-forming stem cells can induce sustained remission of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the central nervous system.
Five years after receiving the treatment, called high-dose immunosuppressive therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (HDIT/HCT), 69 percent of trial participants had survived without experiencing progression of disability, relapse of MS symptoms or new brain lesions. Notably, participants did not take any MS medications after receiving HDIT/HCT. Other studies have indicated that currently available MS drugs have lower success rates.
The trial, called HALT-MS, was sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and conducted by the NIAID-funded Immune Tolerance Network (ITN). The researchers published three-year results from the study in December 2014, and the final five-year results appear online Feb. 1 in Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
Researchers at The University of Nottingham have developed a break-through technique that uses sound rather than light to see inside live cells, with potential application in stem-cell transplants and cancer diagnosis.
The new nanoscale ultrasound technique uses shorter-than-optical wavelengths of sound and could even rival the optical super-resolution techniques which won the 2014 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
This new kind of sub-optical phonon (sound) imaging provides invaluable information about the structure, mechanical properties and behaviour of individual living cells at a scale not achieved before.
Newswise — A ‘living bandage’ made from stem cells, which could revolutionise the treatment and prognosis of a common sporting knee injury, has been trialled in humans for the first time by scientists at the Universities of Liverpool and Bristol.
Meniscal tears are suffered by over one million people a year in the US and Europe alone and are particularly common in contact sports like football and rugby. 90 per cent or more of tears occur in the white zone of meniscus which lacks a blood supply, making them difficult to repair. Many professional sports players opt to have the torn tissue removed altogether, risking osteoarthritis in later life.
The cell bandage has been developed by Bristol University spin-out company Azellon, and is designed to enable the meniscal tear to repair itself by encouraging cell growth in the affected tissue.
New human pluripotent stem cells lines are derived from individuals of the Brazilian population – with European, African and Native American genomic ancestry; they can be used for testing drug toxicity and for studying differential drug response
Most lines of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) reported worldwide are derived from people or embryos with European or East Asian ancestries. An article published on October, 6, at the journal Scientific Reports – from the Nature group – announces 23 new lines of hPSC with different levels of admixed European, African and Native American genomic ancestry. The library can be expanded to 1.877 cell lines and was established by the researchers of the National Laboratory of Embryonic Stem Cells (LaNCE), from the Center for Cell-Based Therapy (CTC), at the University of São Paulo, Brazil.
Prof. Fiona Doetsch’s research team at the Biozentrum, University of Basel, has discovered that the choroid plexus, a largely ignored structure in the brain that produces the cerebrospinal fluid, is an important regulator of adult neural stem cells. The study recently published in “Cell Stem Cell” also shows that signals secreted by the choroid plexus dynamically change during aging which affects aged stem cell behavior.
A new addition in the growing number of studies using brain organoids to understand how the Zika virus leads to microcephaly reveals that human neural stem cells infected by the virus subsequently trigger an innate immune response that leads to cell death. On May 6 in Cell Stem Cell, University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers report that if this immune response is blocked, it helps neural stem cells survive Zika infection.
For first time, researchers show functional benefit in animal model of key motor control system
Writing in the March 28, 2016 issue of Nature Medicine, researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, with colleagues in Japan and Wisconsin, report that they have successfully directed stem cell-derived neurons to regenerate lost tissue in damaged corticospinal tracts of rats, resulting in functional benefit.
“The corticospinal projection is the most important motor system in humans,” said senior study author Mark Tuszynski, MD, PhD, professor in the UC San Diego School of Medicine Department of Neurosciences and director of the UC San Diego Translational Neuroscience Institute. “It has not been successfully regenerated before. Many have tried, many have failed — including us, in previous efforts.”
Don Reed’s new book “Stem Cell Battles: Proposition 71 and Beyond” (available at Amazon) gives us an insider’s perspective on the historical whirlwind that today is driving forward medical research in California and elsewhere. The author, who has been called the “Grandfather of Stem Cell Research Advocacy” for his longstanding commitment to this cause, is intimately familiar with the community of scientists, politicians, and patient activists who first came together over a decade ago to advocate stem cell research. Their signature achievement has been passage of Proposition 71 in California, which established financing for the research to the tune of three billion dollars. Largely as a result of their effort, we stand today at the threshold of medical breakthroughs that will save millions of lives.
As Reed explains, the stem cell research mission is advanced out not only in laboratories but also in the centers of political power. The research requires funding and has to withstand attack from religious fanaticism that aims to shut it down. Standing staunchly against publicly-funded embryonic stem cell research have been not only anti-government conservatives but also fundamentalist religious organizations and Catholic officialdom.
LOS ANGELES (Dec. 8, 2015) ? A combination of adult stem cells and parathyroid hormone significantly increased new bone formation in laboratory animals and may speed the healing process for human bone fractures caused by osteoporosis, a new study shows.
The study is published online by Molecular Therapy, a peer-reviewed journal in the Nature Publishing Group. Researchers used a combination of mesenchymal stem cells, which are derived from bone marrow taken from adults, and parathyroid hormone, also called PTH, which regulates human calcium levels essential for strong and healthy bones.
For 21 days, laboratory rats and pigs with vertebral fractures received daily injections of PTH. During the same period, the animals also were injected with five doses of stem cells. The study shows that the combination therapy significantly enhanced the stem cells’ migration to the area of the bone fracture and increased the formation of new, healthy bone.