Category Archives: Stem Cells

Stem cell transplants may induce long-term remission of multiple sclerosis

Encouraging results help set stage for larger studies.

New clinical trial results provide evidence that high-dose immunosuppressive therapy followed by transplantation of a person’s own blood-forming stem cells can induce sustained remission of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the central nervous system.

Five years after receiving the treatment, called high-dose immunosuppressive therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (HDIT/HCT), 69 percent of trial participants had survived without experiencing progression of disability, relapse of MS symptoms or new brain lesions. Notably, participants did not take any MS medications after receiving HDIT/HCT. Other studies have indicated that currently available MS drugs have lower success rates.

The trial, called HALT-MS, was sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and conducted by the NIAID-funded Immune Tolerance Network (ITN). The researchers published three-year results from the study in December 2014, and the final five-year results appear online Feb. 1 in Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

Mathematics of Stem Cells

Presented by the University of California Irvine School of Physical Sciences. Cell populations are complex. Their collective functioning, turnover, and cooperation are at the basis of the life of multicellular organisms, such as humans. When this goes wrong, an unwanted evolutionary process can begin that leads to cancer. Mathematics cannot cure cancer, but it can be used to understand some of its aspects, which is an essential step in winning the battle.

New Ultrasound Technique is First to Image Inside Live Cells

These are stem cells becoming fat cells. Using the ultrasound technique, we can start exploring why fat cells put on fat and whether we can make the cells ‘diet’. Credit: University of Nottingham

Researchers at The University of Nottingham have developed a break-through technique that uses sound rather than light to see inside live cells, with potential application in stem-cell transplants and cancer diagnosis.

The new nanoscale ultrasound technique uses shorter-than-optical wavelengths of sound and could even rival the optical super-resolution techniques which won the 2014 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

This new kind of sub-optical phonon (sound) imaging provides invaluable information about the structure, mechanical properties and behaviour of individual living cells at a scale not achieved before.

Stem Cell ‘Living Bandage’ for Knee Injuries Trialled in Humans

Newswise — A ‘living bandage’ made from stem cells, which could revolutionise the treatment and prognosis of a common sporting knee injury, has been trialled in humans for the first time by scientists at the Universities of Liverpool and Bristol.

Meniscal tears are suffered by over one million people a year in the US and Europe alone and are particularly common in contact sports like football and rugby. 90 per cent or more of tears occur in the white zone of meniscus which lacks a blood supply, making them difficult to repair. Many professional sports players opt to have the torn tissue removed altogether, risking osteoarthritis in later life.

The cell bandage has been developed by Bristol University spin-out company Azellon, and is designed to enable the meniscal tear to repair itself by encouraging cell growth in the affected tissue.

New Library of Human Stem Cells with the Brazilian Genetic Admixture

New human pluripotent stem cells lines are derived from individuals of the Brazilian population – with European, African and Native American genomic ancestry; they can be used for testing drug toxicity and for studying differential drug response

Most lines of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) reported worldwide are derived from people or embryos with European or East Asian ancestries. An article published on October, 6, at the journal Scientific Reports – from the Nature group – announces 23 new lines of hPSC with different levels of admixed European, African and Native American genomic ancestry. The library can be expanded to 1.877 cell lines and was established by the researchers of the National Laboratory of Embryonic Stem Cells (LaNCE), from the Center for Cell-Based Therapy (CTC), at the University of São Paulo, Brazil.

The Beauty Of Pluripotent Stem Cells – Great Intro

By Muhammad Khan, TEDxBrentwoodCollegeSchool

Stem cells are extremely new to science, and research (despite being hindered) is advancing at an amazing pace. In 2012 a man named Shinya Yamanaka made the ground breaking discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells – essentially a cell that is reprogrammed into thinking it is a stem cell and behaves exactly as a stem cell would. The technology and possibilities that Shinya Yamanaka unlocked with this discovery is mind boggling, the possibilities are endless especially because it removes the ethical debate of stem cells being potential children.

I am a 17 year old student at Brentwood, this is both my first and last year and I’m looking forward to an amazing one. I’ve always been interested in science, in particular the medical sciences have always fascinated me. Growing up I’d always look for new science news and through all of that I found the amazing science of stem cells. Since then, they have been a huge interest of mine, so much so that I voluntarily did an extended essay on it. Bringing that interest and fascination to people who might not be so interested in science is something that I am really looking forward to with this talk.

This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at http://ted.com/tedx

Cerebrospinal fluid signals control the behavior of stem cells in the brain

When stem cells from the old brain are cultured with signals of a young choroid plexus they can divide and form new neurons (red). Credit: Biozentrum, University of Basel

When stem cells from the old brain are cultured with signals of a young choroid plexus they can divide and form new neurons (red). Credit: Biozentrum, University of Basel.

Prof. Fiona Doetsch’s research team at the Biozentrum, University of Basel, has discovered that the choroid plexus, a largely ignored structure in the brain that produces the cerebrospinal fluid, is an important regulator of adult neural stem cells. The study recently published in “Cell Stem Cell” also shows that signals secreted by the choroid plexus dynamically change during aging which affects aged stem cell behavior.

Lasers Carve the Path to Tissue Engineering

Future medicine is bound to include extensive tissue-engineering technologies such as organs-on-chips and organoids – miniature organs grown from stem cells. But all this is predicated on a simple yet challenging task: controlling cellular behavior in three dimensions. So far, most cell culture approaches are limited to two-dimensional environments (e.g. a Petri dish or a chip), but that neither matches real biology nor helps us sculpt tissues and organs. Two EPFL scientists have now developed a new method that uses lasers to carve out paths inside biocompatible gels to locally influence cell function and promote tissue formation. The work is published in Advanced Materials.

In the body, cells grow in 3D microspaces that are specific to each type of tissue – liver, kidney, lung, heart, brain etc. These microenvironments are important because they control the behavior of the cells, e.g. how they interact with other parts of the tissue to help it develop, function, and repair. In addition, the microenvironments themselves are very dynamic and adaptable, sending the cells various biochemical signals to adapt their behavior to physiological changes.

Evidence that Zika causes neural stem cells to self-destruct

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Credit: Dang and Tiwari et al./Cell Stem Cell 2015

A new addition in the growing number of studies using brain organoids to understand how the Zika virus leads to microcephaly reveals that human neural stem cells infected by the virus subsequently trigger an innate immune response that leads to cell death. On May 6 in Cell Stem Cell, University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers report that if this immune response is blocked, it helps neural stem cells survive Zika infection.

Stem cells used to successfully regenerate damage in corticospinal injury

For first time, researchers show functional benefit in animal model of key motor control system

Writing in the March 28, 2016 issue of Nature Medicine, researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, with colleagues in Japan and Wisconsin, report that they have successfully directed stem cell-derived neurons to regenerate lost tissue in damaged corticospinal tracts of rats, resulting in functional benefit.

“The corticospinal projection is the most important motor system in humans,” said senior study author Mark Tuszynski, MD, PhD, professor in the UC San Diego School of Medicine Department of Neurosciences and director of the UC San Diego Translational Neuroscience Institute. “It has not been successfully regenerated before. Many have tried, many have failed — including us, in previous efforts.”