Tag Archives: stem cells

Mice created from skin cells

From Cox Newspapers

WEST PALM BEACH, Fla. — Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute in San Diego have created healthy adult mice out of mouse skin cells — no sperm, no egg. Just skin.

The feat, described in the scientific journal Nature this week, was intended to prove that adult cells can be reprogrammed backward in their development, until they have all the desirable characteristics of embryonic stem cells.

According to Gerard McGill, a medical ethicist at Duquesne University’s Center for Healthcare Ethics, this means the ability to treat diabetes, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, hearing loss, or spinal cord damage with a patient’s own cells is within reach.

“It proves that reprogrammed cells are equivalent to embryonic stem cells,” McGill said. “Treatments are at least 15 or 20 years away, but they are reasonable.”

Reprogramming mouse skin cells to grow into complete mice required advances in mouse genetics, genetic engineering, stem cell biology and reproductive technology.

The scientists started using standard fetal mouse skin cells. They then genetically engineered viruses to carry genes for four key proteins believed to be able to reprogram a cell’s behavior. The viruses infected the skin cells, forcing them to produce the compounds.

The scientists hand-selected cells that had the most obvious stem-cell-like traits.

The cells were eventually transferred into fertile female mice.

Two of the embryos survived to become fertile adults.

Replacement teeth grown in mice

Researchers in Japan have successfully grown replacement teeth in mice, according to a report in PNAS journal.

Tissue containing the cells and instructions for building a tooth was transplanted into the jawbones of mice.

They report that these tissue “germs” regularly grew into fully functional teeth with a hardness comparable to that of the natural variety.

The work illustrates a technique that could lead to engineered organ replacements, according to the authors.

They found that nerve fibres were able to grow throughout the teeth and respond to pain stimulation.

The researchers also tracked gene expression in the engineered tooth “germ” with a fluorescent protein.

This revealed that genes that were normally activated in tooth development were also active during growth of the engineered replacement.

The study was led by Etsuko Ikeda from the Tokyo University of Science, Japan.

Researchers May Have Found Equivalent of Embryonic Stem Cells

By Rob Stein, WashingtonPost.com

Chinese scientists have bred mice from cells that might offer an alternative to human embryonic stem cells, producing the most definitive evidence yet that the technique could help sidestep many of the explosive ethical issues engulfing the controversial field but raising alarm that the advance could lead to human cloning and designer babies.

In papers published online Thursday by two scientific journals, separate teams of researchers from Beijing and Shanghai reported that they had for the first time created virtual genetic duplicates of mice using skin cells from adult animals that had been coaxed into the equivalent of embryonic stem cells.

The findings were welcomed by supporters and opponents of human embryonic stem cell research as a long-sought vital step in proving that the cells could be as useful as embryonic cells for studying and curing many illnesses.

The results come just as the Obama administration has eased federal restrictions on government funding for embryonic stem cell research, and they could influence how to prioritize millions of dollars in new spending in the field.

But because of concerns that the techniques might make cloning and genetic engineering of embryos easier, the work could reignite calls for a ban on attempts to clone people and for restrictions on genetic manipulation of embryos.

“The implications of this are both enormously important and troublesome,” said Robert Lanza, a stem cell researcher at Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Mass. “It revives many of the issues raised by reproductive cloning.”

Many scientists believe human embryonic stem cell research could revolutionize medicine by enabling doctors to use genetically matched tissue to treat many diseases. But the field has been mired in controversy because embryos are destroyed to obtain the cells.

In 2006, scientists discovered that they could induce adult cells to regress to a stage that appeared identical to embryonic stem cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Although scientists have become increasingly adept at creating and manipulating such cells, questions have lingered about whether they are truly equivalent. The new experiments were designed to put the cells to what has long been considered the most rigorous test.

In the studies, published in the journals Nature and Cell Stem Cell, the researchers used viruses to flip genetic switches in the DNA of skin cells from adult mice to turn them into iPS cells in the laboratory. The researchers then injected some of the iPS cells into very early embryos that are capable of forming a placenta but not of fully developing on their own. The resulting embryos were then transferred into the wombs of surrogate mice.

One team of scientists led by Qi Zhou of the Chinese Academy of Sciences created 37 iPS cell lines, three of which produced 27 live offspring, the first of which they named Tiny. One of the offspring, a 7-week-old male, went on to impregnate a female and produce young of its own. Altogether, the researchers bred at least 100 first-generation mice and hundreds of second-generation mice that were nearly identical genetically to the mice from which the iPS cells were derived.

“This gives us hope for future therapeutic interventions using patients’ own reprogrammed cells,” Fanyi Zeng of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, who worked with Zhou, said during a telephone briefing for reporters.

The second group of researchers, led by Shaorong Gao of the National Institute of Biological Sciences in Beijing, created five iPS cell lines, one of which was able to produce embryos that survived until birth. Although four animals were born, only one lived to adulthood. Nevertheless, the work is “proof that iPS cells are functionally equivalent to embryonic stem cells,” Gao said in a telephone interview.

Other researchers agreed, praising the work as a long-awaited confirmation of the cells’ equivalence.

“This clearly says for the first time that iPS cells pass the most stringent test,” said Konrad Hochedlinger, a stem cell researcher at Harvard University.

Opponents of human embryonic stem cell research said the findings provide the latest in a growing body of evidence for why such research is no longer necessary.

“Nobody has been able to find anything that embryonic stem cells can do that these cells can’t do,” said Richard M. Doerflinger of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. “This was the last remaining barrier.”

The Chinese scientists and others, however, said continued research on embryonic stem cells remains crucial to validate iPS cells and because it remains unclear which cells will turn out to be most useful for different purposes.

But the cells’ ability to produce almost genetically identical offspring raised the fear that rogue scientists might misuse the technique to attempt to clone humans.

“The culture wars are not over,” said Jonathan D. Moreno, a University of Pennsylvania bioethicist. “There was a lot of celebration about the end of the ethical issues with induced pluripotent stem cells. But this is the paradigm case that shows that the old debates are rapidly being transformed into something even more complicated.”

Lanza also raised the prospect that the techniques could one day be used essentially to steal someone’s DNA to make a baby. “With just a little piece of your skin, or some blood from the hospital, anyone could have your child — even an ex-girlfriend or neighbor,” he wrote in an e-mail. “This isn’t rocket science — with a little practice, any IVF clinic in the world could probably figure out how to get it to work.”

In addition, researchers could genetically engineer traits into the cells before using them to create embryos for designer babies.

“For instance, the technology already exists to genetically increase the muscle mass in animals by knocking out a gene known as mystatin, and could be used by a couple who wants a great child athlete,” Lanza wrote.

Others dismissed such concerns, saying many scientific, ethical and regulatory hurdles remain. They said that just because the process works in mice does not necessarily mean it would work in humans, that many states outlaw human cloning and that federal regulators could step in to prevent it.

Sperm From Stem Cells

By Peter Allen, cbsnews.com

This week, British researchers announced another extraordinary breakthrough in medical research. They have taken stem cells from an embryo and created human sperm.

It’s very exciting, said the man who led the team. They have heads, they have tails, and they move. They have all the essential qualities for creating life. The aim, we are told, is to revolutionize the treatment of infertility.

But this discovery has created some interesting dilemmas. Sperm could be produced from female stem cells. That would mean women would no longer need men to create babies. It could also be theoretically used to produce an unlimited supply of babies from one stem cell line — millions of babies who are exactly the same. Will it happen? Probably not. Could it happen? Almost certainly, yes.

One of the opponents of this kind of research called it an example of man at his maddest. There are those who doubt the claims made by these researchers, but the truth is, it is only one of a remarkable series of medical breakthroughs involving stem cells. What these and other researchers are doing is ripping up the codes of law and morality by which we conduct our lives. The pace of discovery has left our legislators floundering.

And to make the whole matter more alarming, the pace of that change is increasing. Take these fine shining teeth, for instance — currently being rebuilt by a top man down the road with the aid of bone implants and titanium bolts. High tech – I said to my dental surgeon. It will soon be out of date, he replied. In future we will grow you nice new teeth from stem cells.

In fact, he said, some people are already trying it. But the rats they are using tend to grow the right teeth in the wrong places. So not quite suitable for me yet.

Stem cells, he said, can grow into anything — not just your teeth, but any failing organ. Think of it. Heart attack? Have a new heart. Kidneys in trouble? Here’s some more. Maybe when the treatments are perfected I will be able to live forever, as will you. Me — here — forever? I suspect for you the proposition does not attract. As a matter of fact it does not do much for me either.

Scientists Reprogram Clearly Defined Adult Cells Into Pluripotent Stem Cells — Directly And Without Viruses

From ScienceDaily.com

Click link above for complete article.

Feds ease restrictions on use of stem cells

By Shankar Vedantam, Washington Post

From SFGate.com

Hundreds of embryonic stem cell lines, whose use in the United States had been curtailed by the Bush administration, can be used to study disorders and develop cures if researchers can show the cells were derived using ethical procedures, according to new rules issued by the federal government Monday.

President Obama had promised during last year’s campaign to ease restrictions on the use of stem cells in research, and has cited the promise of stem cells in finding cures for disorders that have so far proved intractable.

The use of embryonic stem cells was not prohibited under the Bush administration, but federal funds were limited to a very small number of stem cell lines, which choked off most research. The new guidelines, issued by the National Institutes of Health, permit federal funding for research using many of the approximately 700 embryonic stem cell lines that are believed to be in existence.

In a move that drew praise from advocates of stem cell research and bitter criticism from opponents, the NIH said it will allow the use of any existing stem cell line that followed broad ethical principles. Acting NIH Director Raynard Kington said an NIH committee including scientists, ethicists and advocates will evaluate older stem cell lines to assess how each was derived.

He said all embryonic stem cell lines that qualified for federal funding would have to meet a series of ethical requirements: The embryo that was destroyed to create a stem cell line must have been discarded by couples following an in vitro fertilization procedure, and the donors must have been informed that the embryo would be destroyed for stem cell research and made fully cognizant of their choices, including donating the embryo to another couple who want a baby. No donors could have been paid for an embryo, and no threats or inducements could have been used to nudge couples toward donating an embryo.

Kington said the NIH would set up a Web site that would list all the approved stem cell lines.

Almost all of the stem cell lines developed in California are expected to meet the NIH ethics guidelines, said Geoffrey Lomax, senior officer for medical and ethical standards with the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. The institute was created by a voter initiative in 2004 to support stem cell research.

Lomax said the registry should be a boon to researchers in California by making it easier to use stem cell lines from other states. Previously, scientists would have spent valuable time and money determining whether an out-of-state line met California ethical criteria before they could begin their research. With a national database, they can skip that first step, Lomax said.

“This (registry) will speed things up a bit,” Lomax said. “It creates a level of standardization that is extraordinarily helpful and it removes a lot of uncertainty.”

The use of stem cells in research has become the subject of bitter national controversy, with advocates suggesting it is immoral for the federal government not to fund research that could save thousands of lives, and with opponents arguing it is immoral to fund research that involves destroying embryos.

Chronicle staff writer Erin Allday contributed to this report.

Scientists Find Differences in Embryonic Stem Cells and Reprogrammed Skin Cells

From Newswise.com

UCLA researchers have found that embryonic stem cells and skin cells reprogrammed into embryonic-like cells have inherent molecular differences, demonstrating for the first time that the two cell types are clearly distinguishable from one another.

The data from the study suggest that embryonic stem cells and the reprogrammed cells, known as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, have overlapping but still distinct gene expression signatures. The differing signatures were evident regardless of where the cell lines were generated, the methods by which they were derived or the species from which they were isolated, said Bill Lowry, a researcher with the Broad Stem Cell Research Center and a study author.

“We need to keep in mind that iPS cells are not perfectly similar to embryonic stem cells,” said Lowry, an assistant professor of molecular, cell and developmental biology. “We’re not sure what this means with regard to the biology of pluripotent stem cells. At this point our analyses comprise just an observation. It could be biologically irrelevant, or it could be manifested as an advantage or a disadvantage.”

The study appears in the July 2, 2009 issue of the journal Cell Stem Cell.

Click link above for complete article.

New York Becomes First State To Allow Payment For Donating Eggs For Stem Cell Research

From MedicalNewsToday.com

New York’s Empire State Stem Cell Board earlier this month decided to allow embryonic stem cell researchers who receive state funding to compensate women for donating their eggs for use in research, making New York the first state to enact such a policy, the Washington Post reports (Stein, Washington Post, 6/26). According to the New York Times, the New York state Legislature in 2007 allotted $600 million for an 11-year stem cell research plan (Nelson, New York Times, 6/26). Under the board’s decisions, researchers receiving the state funding may pay women up to $10,000 to compensate them for the time, discomfort and expenses associated with egg donation. David Hohn, vice chair of the board’s two committees that endorsed the decision, said that the board “could not distinguish ethically between the payment for in vitro fertilization, which is very well precedented, and the compensation for donation for research.” The board said researchers should follow the same guidelines as infertility clinics that receive donated eggs for infertile couples. Under those guidelines, payments exceeding $5,000 must be justified, and those exceeding $10,000 are considered excessive (Washington Post, 6/26). Robert Klitzman, director of the master’s degree program in bioethics at Columbia University and a member of the stem cell board’s ethics committee, said the payments will be carefully evaluated by an institutional review board (New York Times, 6/26).

The Post reports that the decision goes against policies in other states that offer funding for embryonic stem cell research, as well as against current guidelines from scientific organizations like the National Academy of Sciences (Washington Post, 6/26). NAS guidelines, for example, prohibit paying women for eggs used in stem cell research. Similarly, the internal guidelines for New York-based groups like Rockefeller University, Cornell University and the Sloan-Kettering Institute prohibit financial compensation for donated eggs. However, researchers say that efforts to recruit unpaid donors have been unsuccessful and that the board’s decision will give New York an advantage in stem cell research (New York Times, 6/26).

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Hysterectomies Could Be Source of Stem Cells

Researchers eye tissues that are normally discarded after surgery

From health.usnews.com

Fallopian tubes removed from fertile women of child-bearing age during hysterectomies or other procedures might prove to be a new source of highly sought-after stem cells.

Researchers from the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil found that human fallopian tubes are rich in mesenchymal stem cells. The team isolated and grew these cells in a laboratory and differentiated them into muscle, fat, cartilage and bone cell lines without producing problems in the cell chromosomes, according to a report in the Journal of Translational Medicine.

“In addition to providing an additional potential source for regenerative medicine, these findings might contribute to reproductive science as a whole,” study leader Tatiana Jazedje, of the university’s Human Genome Research Center, said in a news release from the journal’s publisher.

Past studies have also shown success with isolating and differentiating mesenchymal stem cells harvested from umbilical cords, dental pulp and body fat.

Together, these findings are of great interest, the researchers said. “Moreover, the use of human tissue fragments that are usually discarded in surgical procedures does not pose ethical problems,” Jazedje said.

Next Big Market: Adult Stem Cell Drugs and Therapies

Written by M.E.Garza, Biomedreports.com

According to a new report in Fortune Magazine, marketable therapies emerging from work in the (less controversial) adult stem space could be the next multi-billion dollar market.

Research on adult stem cells has generated a great deal of excitement. Adult stem cells have already been used successfully with patients: to treat cartilage defects in children; restore vision to patients who were legally blind; relieve systemic lupus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis; and to serve as an aid in numerous cancer treatments.

Scientists have found adult stem cells in many more tissues than they once thought possible. This finding has led researchers and clinicians to ask whether adult stem cells could be used for transplants. In fact, adult hematopoietic, or blood-forming, stem cells from bone marrow have been used in transplants for 40 years. Scientists now have evidence that stem cells exist in the brain and the heart. If the differentiation of adult stem cells can be controlled in the laboratory, these cells may become the basis of transplantation-based therapies. These Adult stem cells can be harvested from many areas of the body, including the bone marrow, fat and peripheral blood. Once the cells have been harvested, they are sent to the lab where they are purified and assessed for quality before being reintroduced back in the patient. Since the stem cells come from the patient there is no possibility for rejection and they are used in transplants to treat diseases, such as cancers like leukemia.

According to various studies, stem cells isolated from a patient (i.e. from the bone marrow or fat) have the ability to become different cell types (i.e. nerve cells, liver cells, heart cells and cartilage cells). Studies have also shown that these are capable of “homing in” on and repairing damaged tissue. Researchers feel they are far closer to commercializing drugs based on adult stem cells than any product based on embryonic stem cells. In fact, many clinics outside of North America already tout stem cell based treatments to treat chronic diseases for which there are inadequate standard therapies. These clinics currently accept patients with Diabetes Type 2, Autoimmune Diseases, Multiple Sclerosis, Degenerative Joint Disease, Autoimmune Diseases as well as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis. Unfortunately, patients seeking those treatments in other countries most often run the risk of parting with their money and being disappointed with the results.

Back in the states, Robin Young, a medical industry analyst from RRY Publications, estimates that gross sales of adult cellular therapies will be well over $100 million this year. By 2018, he says stem cell therapy revenues could grow to $8.2 billion.

“Adult derived cells are the ones that have been studied for the past 10 to 15 years and are ready for prime time,” says Debra Grega, the executive director of the Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine at Case Western Reserve University. “Large pharmaceutical companies are now wanting to get into the adult stem cell therapeutic area. That indicates to me that there is enough safety and enough efficacy that they are willing to put money in.”

Pharmaceutical giant Pfizer (NYSE:PFE)  announced in November that it would invest up to $100 million in regenerative research, which would include both adult and embryonic stem cell research, over a three to five year period.

The overall stem cell market, however, is still quite small. The California-based outfit Geron (NASDAQ:GERN) dominates the embryonic stem cell market, and is perhaps 10 years away from commercializing a spinal cord treatment based on its research.

The frontrunner in the adult stem cell space, according to Forbes, is Osiris Therapeutics, Inc.(NASDAQ:OSIR)- currently trading at $14.20 per share. Genzyme Corp. (NASDAQ:GENZ) has signed a partnership alliance with Osiris Therapeutics to develop two  late-stage adult stem cell treatments — Prochymal and Chondrogen — thought to be useful to treat a variety of diseases by controlling inflammation, promoting growth of new tissue and preventing scars. The deal will pay Osiris $130 million upfront ($75 million initially and the difference to be paid on July 1, 2009).  Assuming the drugs reach the marketplace, Genzyme will pay up to $1.25 billion in development, regulatory and sales milestone payments.

Osiris is focused on developing and marketing products to treat medical conditions in the inflammatory, orthopedic, and cardiovascular areas. Their principal biologic drug candidate, Prochymal, is being evaluated in Phase III clinical trials for three indications, including acute and steroid refractory Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD), Crohn’s disease and for the repair of gastrointestinal injury resulting from radiation exposure, and is the only stem cell therapeutic granted both Orphan Drug and Fast Track status by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Prochymal is also being developed for the repair of heart tissue following a heart attack, for protection of pancreatic islet cells in patients with type I diabetes, and for the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The FDA could approve within a year which fights a painful illness called “graft-versus-host disease” which afflicts transplant recipients.  If they succeed, Osiris would be the first company to gain approval for a stem cell drug. Osiris will commercialize both drugs in the U.S. and Canada, and Genzyme will sell the drugs in all other countries.

Investors should be aware that there are only a limited number of stocks which are pure plays or semi-pure plays in the stem cell industry. Below are some of the companies working in the adult stem cell medicine space:

StemCells, Inc.(NASDAQ:STEM) – a company is engaged in the discovery and development of cell-based therapeutics to treat damage to, or degeneration of, major organ systems. Currently trading at $1.60 with a market cap of $164.09M.

Cytori Therapeutics Inc. (NASDAQ:CYTX) which develops, manufactures, and sells medical technologies to enable the practice of regenerative medicine. The Company’s commercial activities are focused on cosmetic and reconstructive surgery in Europe and Asia-Pacific, and stem and regenerative cell banking (cell preservation) in worldwide. Its product pipeline includes the development of new treatments for cardiovascular disease, spinal disc degeneration, gastrointestinal disorders, liver and renal disease and pelvic health conditions. They currently trade at $3.55 with a market cap of $121.02M.

Aastrom Biosciences, Inc.(NASDAQ:ASTM) engaged in the development of autologous cell products for the repair or regeneration of human tissue. The Company’s tissue repair cell (TRC) technology involves the use of a patient’s own cells to manufacture products to treat a range of chronic diseases and serious injuries affecting vascular, bone, cardiac and neural tissues. Aastrom’s TRC-based products contain increased numbers of stem and early progenitor cells, produced from a small amount of bone marrow collected from the patient. Late last month, the company made headlines after temporarily suspending enrollment and patient treatment in its U.S. Phase II IMPACT-DCM clinical trial following a report that a patient died at home after being released from the hospital following treatment in the trial. The stock trades at $0.36 pps with a market cap of $58.44M.

ThermoGenesis Corp.(NASDAQ:KOOL) designs, manufactures and markets automated and semi-automated devices and single-use processing disposables that enable hospitals and blood banks to manufacture a therapeutic dose of stem cells, wound healing proteins or growth factors from a single unit of cord blood or the patient’s own blood in less than one hour. They currently trade at just under $0.70 and have a market cap of $37.02M.

Opexa Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq:OPXA) is a biopharmaceutical company developing autologous cellular therapies with the potential to treat major illnesses, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and diabetes. The Company has a global license from Baylor College of Medicine (or Baylor) to an individualized T-cell therapeutic vaccine, Tovaxin, which is in clinical development for the treatment of MS. MS is the result of a person’s own T-cells attacking the myelin sheath that coats the nerve cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Shares currently trade under $0.60 with a market cap of $7.29M.

At BioMedReports, we will continue to explore this potentially bountiful market within the healthcare sector in coming weeks, as it sounds like investors would greatly benefit from insight into the current marketplace.

“From a Wall Street perspective, adult stem cells are a much better investment,” said Stephen Dunn of Dawson James Securities.”